GLOSARIO

Los números de página seguidos de t indican tabla. Los números de página seguidos de n indican notas finales.

A
Absolute monopoly, 9
Abuse, of land, 43
Advocacy, legislative,122
Affordable access to land, 83
Affordable housing, 83–92
“Aggregate Land Rents, Expenditure on Public Goods, and Optimal City Size” (Arnott and Stiglitz), 166n
Ahlfeldt, Gabriel, 71
Alaska, 56, 157n
Alaskan voters, 156n–157n
Alaska Permanent Fund, 157n
Alioto, Angela, 166n
American Dream, 113
American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 149n
Andelson, Robert V., 151n, 171n
Apple, Inc., 28, 141n
“Approaching a State Shift in Earth’s Biosphere” (Barnosky), 150n
Arnott, Richard J., 166n
The Ascent of Humanity (Eisenstein), 152n
Aurelius, Marcus, 22
“Average Acreage per Farm, by Region and State: 1850–1997” (Olmstead and Rhode), 169n
Awareness, 120

B
Banks

community land contributions and, 67
economy and, 108
making money off of land and, 98–99
Barnosky, Anthony D., 150n
“Benefits of Military Spending: An Inquiry into the Doctrine that National Defense Is a Public Good” (Gaffney), 169n, 170n
Berry, Wendell, 51

“Big Macs, Fries, and Real Estate,” 145n
Bill Moyers Essay: The United States of Inequality, 28–36
Biodiversity loss, 40–42
Boom phase, in property cycle, 32
Bradsher, Keith, 140n
Brazil, 152n
“Breadbasket of America,” 109
Britain, 31, 33, 143n
Brown, Gordon, 33
Brown, Harry Gunnison, 7
“Building a Future with Farmers: Challenges Faced by Young, American Farmers and a National Strategy to Help Them Succeed” (National Young Farmers Coalition), 168n

Buddha / Buddhist, 45
“The Business Cycle: A Geo-Austrian Synthesis” (Foldvary), 149n
Business owner, community land contributions and, 64

Business recession, 27–36
Buyers exclusive access rights and, 11
financial institutions and, 80–81

C
California, Central, 56
California, state of, 56, 96, 97, 108
California Wright Act, 169n
Cameron, Clyde, 61
“Can Leasing Public Land Be an Alternative Source of Local Public Finance?” (Hong), 156n

Capital, 139n
defined, 5
as factor of production, 4
land as, 15
privatization of, 16
wealth, 144n

Capital gains
effect of taxes on, 161n
income from, 145n
land value and, 22
taxes, 63, 160n
Capital goods, 5, 23, 30, 139n
Capital income, 145n
Capitalism, 13–14, 17, 142n

Capital return, 5, 39,
139n–140n
“Causes of Downturns: An
Austro-Georgist Synthesis”
(Gaffney), 149n
“Changes in Income Inequality
Among U.S. Tax Filers
between 1991 and 2006:

The Role of Wages, Capital
Income, and Taxes” (Hungerford), 145n

The Chaos Makers (Jones and
Harrison), 149n
Chiang, General Kai-shek, 158n
Chodorov, Frank, 93
Christianity, 44–45, 152n
City(ies), 93–94, 98–100
land in, 47
Pennsylvania, 95–96
Clark, John B., 143n
Coalescing, 19
“The Coming Boom in Real
Estate” (Wenzlick), 148n
Commons without Tragedy:
Protecting the Environment from
Overpopulation—A New Approach
(Andelson), 151n–152n, 171n
Communism, 14, 142n
The Communist Manifesto (Marx),
143n
Community(ies). See also Community
land contributions
creating affordable housing,
85
forestry, Mexico, 41
property owners and, 52–53,
57
restoring, 51–60
suburban, 40
value of land and, 18, 19, 20
Community land contributions,
160n, 161n
benefits of, 74–75
defined, 53, 54, 63
fairness of, 74, 75
impact on agriculture, 101
nonapplicability of Laffer
curve to, 162n
paying, 64–67, 75
rental values and,
154n–155n
revenue, 76, 80, 84
simplicity of, 70, 75
Universal Basic Income and,
90
use of land and, 64, 99
wealth in society and,
84–85
Community land stewardship,
53
Community land trust,
164n–165n
Compensation, for property
owners, 57
Computerized model of land
values (video), 71–74
Confederacy. See “Geoconfederacy,”
113–114
Confederal democracy, peace
through, 116
Conrad, Joseph, 77
Construction, peaks in, 150n

Consumer(s)
community land contributions
and, 64
economy, 29–30
Consumption, effects of taxes
on, 63, 79
Consumption taxes, 63
Cook, Tim, 141n
The Corruption of Economics (Gaffney
and Harrison), 15, 143n
Cost(s)
housing, land contributions
and, 83–84
of land and location, 30
of land in city vs. countryside,
47
of living, 39–40, 84, 85,
88t, 89t
of location, 30–31
Countryside, land in, 47
Crash of 2026, 35
“A Critique of Murray Rothbard’s
Critique of the Georgist
Argument” (DeNardo), 154n
Crowfoot, Chief, 35
Cultural degeneration, 23
D
Daly, Herman E., 37
Davis, Morris A., 144n, 148n
Deadweight loss, 63
Demand, for land, 23
DeNardo, Gene, 154n
Depression. See also Economy
of 1930-1941, 168n
of 1992, 32
of 2000-2010, 33
economic, 27–36, 148n, 150n
“The Depression of
2026”(Foldvary), 34, 150n
Dividends, income from, 145n
“$5.3 Trillion Rent of the
USA” (Gaffney), 163n
Dominator civilizations, 77
Duhigg, Charles, 140n

E

Earth, 43–47
Ecocide, 37–42, 151n
“Economic History of Hong
Kong” (Schenk), 156n
“Economic Research Service:
Trends in U.S. Farmland
Values and Ownership”
(Nickerson), 168n
Economic(s)/economy. See also
Economic systems
consumer, 29–30
footprint, 41
justice, peace through, 116
land and, 27
neoclassical, 15–16
overview of, 3–4
paradigm, 109, 121, 171n

recession/depression,
27–36, 150t
rent, defined, 6, 140n
spatial, 140n
value of land and, 56–57
wealth, 4, 30
Economic systems
capitalism, 13–14
communism, 14
dysfunctional, 38
global, 37
socialism, 14
Economist(s), xi, xvii, xviii, 3
Education, new paradigm and,
120–122
Efficiency rate, 170n
Eisenstein, Charles, 92, 117,
152n
Employees, community land
contributions and, 64
Entry monopoly, 9–10, 13
Environment, 43, 111, 152n,
160n
Excess burden, 63, 67–68
Exclusive access rights, to land,
11

F

Facebook, 28
The Fallacy of Malthusian ideas,
161n
Farmers. See also Farmland;
Farms
community land contributions
and, 66–67
land contribution vs. property
and income tax, 106
retirement by 2020,
102–103
Farmland, 143n
average acre per farm, 169n
contributions, 101–102,
104
property taxes on, 168n
Tennessee, 103–109
in U.S. from 1982-2007,
167n
Farms
profit, 12, 12t
San Joaquin Valley, 109
small family, 168n
Faryon, Joanne, 97
Feder, Kris, 9
Federal Reserve Bank of the
United States, 149n
Fetter, Frank A., 143n
Financial Executive, 145n
Flaherty, Jordan, 83–92
Foldvary, Fred E., 33, 34,
57, 62, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75,
113, 149n, 150n, 157n,
158n–159n, 170n
Free market, 9–16
Free public housing, 91

Free riders on public transport
(video), 96

G

Gaffney, Mason, 15, 76, 100,
116, 143n, 149n, 163n,
167n, 168n, 169n, 170n
Gandhi, Mohandas K., 77–78,
79
Geo-Austrian cycle theory, 149n
Geo-confederacy. See “Confederacy,”
113–115
George, Henry. See also Henry
George; xvii, 143n, 154n, 157n.
Gini coefficient, 147n
“Globalisation, Liberalisation,
Poverty and Income Inequality
in Southeast Asia,” 147n
Google, 27–28, 171n–172n
Government Pension Fund—
Global, 56
Governments
city, 93, 94
land contributions and decentralization
of, 163n
property owners compensation
and, 57
The Grapes of Wrath (Steinbeck), 17
Greeley, Horace, 15
Greenbelts, 98

H

Harrison, Fred, 15, 31, 32, 73,
109, 143n, 149n, 162n
Hartzok, Alanna, 157n, 169n
Heathcote, Jonathan, 144n,
148n
Henry George: An Unorthodox
American (Nock), 163n
Henry George Theorem, 166n
Higgings, Polly, 109
Hinduism, 45
Hoarding land, 39, 41, 44–45,
83
Home-affordability rates, 95
Homebuyers, 85, 87
Homeless, 28, 90, 91, 166n,
168n
Homeowner, community land
contributions and, 65–66
Hong, Yu-Hung, 156n
Hong Kong, 55–56, 156n
Hong Kong Land Lease
Reform, Part 1, 156n
Household Income data,
144n
“House Prices: Expect the
Worst” (Harrison), 147n
House values, land values and,
171n–172n
Housing prices, 145n–146n
Housing Unaffordability Index,
166n

“How the U.S. Lost Out on
iPhone Work” (Duhigg and
Bradsher), 140n
Hoyt, Homer, 147n
Hudson, Michael, 27
Hungerford, Thomas, 145n

I

Idle land, 46, 98
“Idle Land, Unemployed
Workers Caused by Incorrect
Taxation,” 160n
Imputed rent, 142n
Income, making, 5, 6, 15, 139n
Income inequality, 20, 39, 41
Income inequality among
U.S. tax filers (1991-2006):
The Role of Wages, Capital
Income, and Taxes”, 145n
Income tax, 73–74, 79
“Inequality and Crime” (Kelly),
147n
An Inquiry into the Nature and
Causes of the Wealth of Nations
(Smith), 164n
Interest, 139n
Internet conglomerates, 27
Internet domains, 10
Investor, community land contributions
and, 64–65
Islam, 45
Israel/Israelis, 114–115

J

Jomo, K. S., 147n
Jones, Frederic J., 149n
Jones, Sophia, 170n
Journal of Monetary Economics,
144n, 148n
Judaism, 44–45

K

Kelly, Morgan, 147n
The Killing Fields (Documentary),
109
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 3
Kingsolver, Barbara, 42
Knopf, Alfred A., 3

L

Labor
defined, 5
human, wealth and, 4, 6, 30
relative to land, 46, 47
wealth produced by capital
and, 144n
Laffer curve to taxes on
wages, applicability of,
161n–162n
Laissez-faire economic growth,
Model of, 55
Land. See also Land rent;
Land value
assessment of, 158n
defined, 4, 5

held by Israel and Palestine,
114
improvements to, 18–19
ownership, 10, 13, 40
value vs. wages, 21, 144n
Land-affordability rates, 95
Land buyers, 85
Land contribution(s). See also
Community land contributions
legislating, 171n
model, 89
Land deeds, 71–72
Land grabbing, 112
The Land-Law of Bengal (Mitra),
152n
Land leasehold model, 53
Land rent
defined, 140n
value, land contributions
and, 68
Land-use rights
affordable housing and,
85–92
Wrigley model on, 58–59,
80–81, 160n
Land value
assessment of, 70–71
communities and, 17–19, 54
computerized model of land
values, 71–76
economic policy and, 56–57
Harrison on, 31
house values and,
171n–172n
implementing economic
policies, 56–57
peaks in, 150n, 150t
return on capital and, 23
sharing, 35, 51, 52, 83, 91
taxes, 53–54, 160n
wealth in surrounding areas
and, 7–8
Law of Rent, 7–8, 140n, 161n
Leasing model, 54
Leopold, Aldo, 43
Lincoln Institute of Land
Policy, 148n
Liou, Daniel He-chiun, 147n
Local autonomy, 77–81
Local land-value assessment
board, 72
Location
advantage of, 10–11
cost of, 30–31
value of, 7–8, 10
Locational rent, 140n
Location Value Covenants
(LVCs), 160n
Love, John F., 145n
LVCs. See Location Value
Covenants (LVCs)
Lyons, Oren, 117

M

“Major Uses of Land in the
United States, 2007” (Nickerson),
163n
Mandela, Nelson, 67
Market
free, 9–16
property rental, 84
real-estate, 10, 68, 85
for top-level internet domains,
10
Marx, Karl, 143n
McDonald’s, 145n
McGill University researchers
study, 40–41
Method, Money, and the
Austrian School (Rothbard),
154n
Mexico, 41
Miller, Henry, 108
Mining industries, community
land contributions and, 67
Mitra, Sáradá Charan, 152n
Model of laissez-faire economic
growth, 55
Money, 4
economic contraction and, 29
wealth production and, 30
MoneyWeek, 31
Monopoly(ies)
absolute, 9
entry, 9–10, 13
of land, 83
model, 54
occurrence of, 141n–142n
Moody, J. Scott, 162n
“A Moral Question,” 170n
The More Beautiful World Our
Hearts Know Is Possible (Eisenstein),
152n
Moyers, Bill, 28
My greedy generation (video),
100

N

Native American / First Nations
/ Indigenous, 35, 45, 153n,
159n
Nature
assigning monetary value
to, 52
as capital, 15
destruction of, 38–39
production of wealth and, 30
sharing gifts of, 16, 46, 52
unequal sharing of, 41
wealth and, 4, 6, 150n
Neoclassical economics, 15–16
New York Times, 140n
Nickerson, Cynthia, 163n,
168n
Nock, Albert J., 163n
Norway, 56, 157n

O

Olmstead, Alan, 169n
One Hundred Years of Land Values
in Chicago: The Relationship of
the Growth of Chicago to the Rise
of Its Land Values, 1830–1933
(Hoyt), 147n
On the Principles of Political
Economy and Taxation (1817)
(Ricardo), 140n
Overpopulation, 118, 158n,
170n
Ownership, land, 10, 13, 40,
53

P

Palestine/Palestinians, 114–115
Payroll tax, 63, 79
Peace, price of, 111–116
“Peace through Confederal
Democracy and Economic
Justice” (Foldvary), 116,
170n
Penner, Gloria, 97
Pennsylvania cities, 95–96
Personal note, 123–127
Pickard, Duncan, 109
Pliny the Elder, 101
Population density, 22, 146n,
147n
Poverty, 22–23, 83, 91
“Poverty and Social Exclusion
Measurement in Taiwan,” 147n
The Power in the Land (Harrison),
31
“The Pre-existing Land Value
Problem,” (Foldvary), 158n
“The Price and Quantity
of Residential Land in the
United States” (Davis and
Heathcote), 144n, 148n
The Price of Inequality (Stiglitz),
169n
Prices
housing, 146n
land, 32, 33, 39, 154n
Private land ownership, 53
Privatization, land, 16, 44
Production
effect of taxes on, 63, 79
factors of, 4
Profit, 11, 20
farm, 12t
from land, 39, 53
Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry
into the Cause of Industrial Depressions
and of Increase of Want
with Increase of Wealth: The
Remedy (George), 154n
Progressive income tax, 72
Property. See also Property
owners; Property taxes
boom of 2000, 33
cycle, 32

periodic location value of,
165n
tax assessment boards, 72
Property owners, 87
community land contributions
and, 84
land values and, 17
mortgages and, 96
profit from land, 11, 13,
145n, 160n–161n
property taxes and, 95
property-value gains and,
13, 93
public efforts and, 96
rents and, 89
Universal Basic Income and,
91
use of land pay and, 57
wealth and, 21
Property taxes, 63, 69, 94,
95–96, 106, 164n
“Property Tax Rates and
Housing Affordability”
(Sullivan), 167n
Proposition 13
California voters and, 96–97
impact on schools, 97–100
Prospective homebuyer,
community land contributions
and, 66
“Providing Resources for
Beginning Farmers and
Ranchers” (U.S. Department
of Agriculture), 167n
Public Management Magazine, 95
Public revenue
behavioral incentives, 79
benefits of, 72–73
effective system for, 71–72
simple, 69
sources of, 62
Public services, 72–73

Q

Quarterly Journal of Economics,
166n
R
Raw land, value of, 18
Raw materials, land and, 139n
Reader’s Digest, 148n
Real-estate
local taxes, 158n
market, 10, 68, 85
prices of land and, 31
truths about, 19–20
Real estate developers, community
land contributions and, 67
“Real Estate 4 Ransom” (Documentary),
96, 163n
Recovery phase, in property
cycle, 32
Religious scriptures, on land,
44–45

Rent. See also Law of Rent
control, 89–90
economic, 6, 139n, 140n
of elements of nature, 159n
extraction, 6
imputed, 142n
land contributions and, 163n
Rental value of land, 53, 54,
155n–156n
Rent seekers, 171n
Rent seeking, 111–113
Resources
foreign, acquisition of, 112
material, xiii
misallocation of, 67–68
natural, 111
social, 62
Retired homeowner, community
land contributions and, 66
Return on investment, 23
Revenue
from land contributions,
76, 84
public, sources of, 62
tax, 79–80
The Review of Economics and
Statistics, 22, 147n
Rhode, Paul, 169n
Ricardo, David, 140n
Ricardo’s Law: House Prices
and the Great Tax Clawback
SCAM (video), 73–76, 162n
“The Rising Cost of Complying
with the Federal Income
Tax” (Moody), 162n
“Rising Inequality and Falling
Property Tax Rates” (Gaffney),
168n
Rothbard, Murray N., 46–47,
153n
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 1
Rural land, 7
Rybeck, Rick, 95
Rybeck, Walt, 95

S

Sagan, Carl, 49
Sales taxes, 63
“The San Francisco Plan to
Abolish Chronic Homelessness”
(Alioto), 166n
Satellite towns, 99
Saving Communities, 166n
Schenk, Catherine, 156n
Self-rule, principle of, 77
Shareholders, community land
contributions and, 64
Siksika First Nation, 35
Sinclair, Upton, 47
“The Single Tax: Economic
and Moral Implications and a
Reply to Georgist Criticisms”
(Rothbard), 153n
Smith, Adam, 164n

Smith, Jeffery J., 158n
Smith, Peter, 109
Snowden, Philip, 111
Social decline, 17–25
Socialism, 14, 142n
Socially generated wealth, 21
Social progress, 24
Social welfare, 3
Society
contributing to, 5, 139n
decline of, 17–25
extracting income from, 6,
23, 24, 144n
free market and, 9
prosperous, 56
public services and, 72–73
Spatial economics, 140n
Split-rate property tax, 94
Sprawl, See
Global, 170n
Suburban, 100, 102
Urban, 98, 100, 102, 112,
169n–170n
Steinbeck, John, 17
Stiglitz, Joseph, 111, 166n, 169n
“The Story of Crowfoot’s
Encounter”, 150n
Sullivan, Dan, 166n, 167n
Sun Yat-sen, 157n
Sustainable economic model,
142n
Swaraj, 77–78, 80
“Sweden Wants Your Trash”
(Jones), 170n
Syddall, Daniel, 162n

T

Taiwan, 56, 158n
Taiwan’s Gini coefficient,
147n
“The Taxable Capacity of
Land” (Gaffney), 167n
Taxes. See also Progressive
income tax; Tax systems
applicability of Laffer curves
on, 161n–162n
effect on wages and capital
gains, 161n
local real estate, 158n
societies and, 61–62
wealth and, 61
Tax evasion, 75
The Taxpayer Advocate Service,
69
Tax revenues, 79–80, 161n
Tax systems
behavioral incentives and,
59–60
complexity in, 69–70
current, 63
inefficiencies of, 76
as society mechanism, 61
Technological progress, 24,
119

Tenants
community land contributions
and, 85
vs. property owners, 89
Tennessee farmland protection
law shelters taxes for rich and
famous, 103–109
Thoreau, Henry David, 24
True capitalism, 13
2010 Annual Report, 69

U

“The Ultimate Tax Reform:
Public Revenue from Land
Rents” (Foldvary), 62–71,
158n
Unaffordability Index, 167n
UNCTAD. See United Nations
Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD)
United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD), 169n
United Nations Universal
Declaration of Human Rights,
46, 153n
The United States of Inequality
(Bill Moyers Essay), 28–36
Unitism concept, 126
Universal Basic Income, 56, 66,
90, 91
Urban land, 7
U.S.
economy, 35, 163n
farmland from 1982-2007
in, 167n
of inequality, 28
landmass, 76
U.S. Constitution, amendment
to, 159n
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
102, 104, 163n, 167n, 168n
U.S. states (including Washington
D.C.), population
density by Gini coefficient for,
146n–147n

V

von Thünen, Johann, 140n

W

Wages
applicability of Laffer curves
on, 161n–162n
cycle and, 32
effect of taxes on, 161n
role of, 22, 145n
taxing, 39
Wealth
equality, 146n
inequality, 22, 40–41,
111–112, 146n, 168n
labor and capital, 144n
misallocation of, 17

socially generated, 21
of society, 24
society property owners
and, 21
taxes and, 61
ways of obtaining, 111
Wealth producing economy, 30
Wealth production, 3–6, 29,
139n, 144n
Wenzlick, Roy, 148n
“Where a Tax Reform Has
Worked” (Smith), 158n
Whitman, Walt, 24
Wildwood Trust, 109
World Wildlife Fund: “Living
Planet Report 2012: Biodiversity,
Biocapacity, and Better
Choices,” 171n
“The Wright Act, California,
USA SWOT Analysis”
(Hartzok), 108, 157n, 169n
Wrigley, Adrian, 58, 160n

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